In October 2012 the Open Net Initiative listed Ethiopia as engaged in pervasive Internet filtering in the political area, selective filtering in the conflict/security and Internet tools areas, and there is no evidence of filtering in the social area, and by ONI in October 2012.
Ethiopia remains a highly restrictive environment in which to express political dissent online.
The government of Ethiopia has long filtered critical and oppositional political content.
Broad application of the country’s 2009 anti-terrorism proclamation has served as the basis for a number of recent convictions with bloggers and journalists convicted on terrorism charges based on their online and offline writings.
The state-owned Ethio Telecom (previously known as Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation (ETC)) is the sole Internet service provider (ISP) in the country.
Internet cafés are the main source of access in urban areas, and an active community of bloggers and online journalists now plays an important role in offering alternative news sources and venues for political dialogue.
Individual purchasers must also apply for Internet connections through the Ethio Telecom.
In 2012, Ethiopia passed a law that prohibits anyone to "bypasses the telecom infrastructure established by the telecom service provider", which prevents any alternative internet service provider to be created.
A test conducted by a Media Ethiopia researcher in July 2007 determined that the average connectivity speed was 5 k Bps and that Internet service in most cafés was unavailable between 10 and 20 percent of the time.
Currently satellite Internet is available to some large corporations, but individuals are not permitted to have private satellite connections.
The ETC also bans the use of Vo IP in Internet cafés and by the general population, though its web site lists Vo IP as part of the company's future broadband strategy.
Similarly, in July 2014, Zelalem Workagegnehu, the contributor of the Diaspora-based De Birhan Blog along with his two friends (Yonatan Wolde and Bahiru Degu), who applied for a Digital Security Course, were arrested and later charged with the Anti-Terror Proclamation.
Bahiru and Yonatan were acquitted by the court on April 15, 2016.